Showing Collections: 1 - 39 of 39
Abstract: Apollo 15 was the fourth manned lunar landing mission. The three-man crew was made up of David R. Scott (1932-), Alfred J. Worden (1932-), and James B. Irwin (1930-1991). The E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company is a chemical company more commonly referred to as the DuPont company. DuPont materials were used in whole or in part for twenty of the twenty-one layers of the Apollo spacesuits. This is a NASA photograph of James Irwin on moon, August 1, 1971. Attached are strips naming the twenty-one different layers of his space suit.
Abstract: Charles H. DeMirjian (1925-) was a packaging design manager with E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. The record consists of a thirteen-page transcript of a taped interview of DeMirjian conducted by then-director of the Hagley Museum and Library Glenn Porter. In his reminiscences, DeMirjian recounts his training and career history, plus some observations on his mode of work.
Dates: 1997 May 23
Abstract: Charles H. Rutledge (1901-1978) was the manager of the Product Information section for the Textile Fibers Department at the DuPont Company from 1944 to 1966. He authored numerous papers and was a contributor to textbooks and encyclopedias on textile fibers. This collection consists of two sets of files, those Rutledge maintained while at DuPont and those he compiled for a book he had planned to write following his retirement about the history of fibers.
Dates: 1933-1971; Majority of material found within 1931-1977
Abstract: Charles Shambelan (1930-2018) was a chemist and senior research fellow at the DuPont Company's Pioneering Research Laboratory from 1959 to 1990. Throughout his career at the DuPont Company, Shambelan made signifcant contributions to the development of Sontara, for which he holds several patents, and Kevlar. This collection consists of two items: a bound volume of Shambelan's patents and publications, and one group photograph of Pioneering Research Laboratory staff in January 1981.
Abstract: Crawford H. Greenewalt (1902-1993) was an executive with the DuPont Company and president of the firm from 1948 to 1962. This collection consists of Greenewalt's papers from his time as president and chairman of the board. There is a broad range of external correspondence, internal company communications and reports, presidential working papers, transcripts of speeches, and published articles that make up the collection.
Dates: 1928-1968; Majority of material found within 1942-1968
Abstract: Science and Corporate Strategy is a scholarly history of Research and Development at the DuPont Company authored by David A. Hounshell (1950-) and John Kenly Smith (1951-). The collection consists of research files compiled by Hounshell Smith for the purpose of writing the book. Research files include copies of correspondence, articles, reports, patents, chronologies, organizational charts, and contracts from the DuPont Company from 1903 though 1980.
Abstract: Donald Robert Hull (1911-1995) was a longtime employee at the DuPont Company mainly working with nylon and textile fibers. The collection pertains to his work at DuPont and Hull's consulting firm, Fiber Concepts, Inc.
Abstract: The Advertising Department representatives in each of the industrial departments worked with the central staff in creating ad campaigns.The collection consists of miscellaneous Du Pont Company advertising materials, including postcards, pictorial envelopes, lantern slides, advertisements, display cards, and illustrated pamphlets.
Dates: circa 1910-1970
Abstract: E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company is a chemical company more commonly referred to as the DuPont company. The company was established in 1802 and began with the production of gunpowder. Throughout the 1900s and 1910s, the company shifted its focus away from gunpowder production and towards chemistry innovations. This collection contains twenty photographs of DuPont Company exhibits and exhibit areas in Atlantic City, New Jersey in the Chalfonte-Haddon Hall, as well as exterior views in the vicinity of the Hall and views of the boardwalk at North Carolina Avenue. Chalfonte-Haddon Hall was a hotel and convention center that had its start as two Quaker boarding houses built in the 1860s.
Abstract: The Pioneering Research Laboratory was the research and development facility for the DuPont Company's Textile Fibers Division. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company is a chemical company more commonly referred to as the DuPont company, established in 1802. The collection consists of technical photographs related to fibers research.
Abstract: In 1952, the DuPont Company created the Product Information section within the Public Relations department. Its function was to produce news releases with photographs about DuPont and its products for indirect publicity and advertising purposes. This collection contains photographs of DuPont Company corporate events and proceedings, product trade shows and fairs, development and manufacturing processes, and the employees and facilities where the products were created. Most of the photographs were taken from the 1930s through the 1950s.
Dates: circa 1895-1968; Majority of material found within 1930-1960
Abstract: The Textile Fibers Department of the DuPont Company, established in 1936 as the Rayon Department, specialized in researching and developing synthetic fibers for fabrics such as Rayon, Nylon, Teflon, Corian, and Kevlar. This collection primarily contains video tapes (VHS and U-Matic). Most of the content on the VHS videotapes are different than that on the U-Matic videotapes, there are a few duplicate videos that are in both formats. The videotapes content are employee training videos related to management, customer service and safety, as well as, informational videos about product and services, company history and events. Additionally the collection contains photographs, slides, advertising and promotional materials.
Dates: 1918-2004; Majority of material found within 1982-1997
Abstract: In 1952, the DuPont Company organized a Product Information section within the Public Relations Department. Its main purpose was to create news releases accompanied by photographs that would be run editorially by trade journals and newspapers to create inexpensive publicity and indirect advertising. This collection consists of the Fabric master files and Textile reference files maintained by the Product Information Department. The majority of the photographs in the Fashion master files are posed fashion images featuring women modeling clothing made from DuPont synthetic fibers. There are images that feature children’s and men’s clothing as well. The fashion categories have been used as subseries and are as follows: Children and teens; Dress wear; Exports; Home furnishing; Home sewing/fashion fabrics; Hosiery; Intimate apparel; Italian couture; Knit wear; Men’s wear; New York couture; Paris couture; Sportswear/activewear; Swimwear; Touring kits; and Uniforms. Textile reference files contain press releases organized by fiber and then chronologically. The subseries are: Acetate, Dacron, Lycra, Multi-Fibers, Nylon, Orlon, Rayon, Reemay and Zepel.
Dates: circa 1939-1982, bulk 1955-1979
Abstract: E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company is a chemical company more commonly referred to as the DuPont company, established in 1802. DuPont's Chestnut Run Laboratories was opened in 1954 near Wilmington, Delaware. This collection consists of two albums documenting the history of the Chestnut Run facility between 1954 and 1961. One album contains primarily photographs taken of the facilities exteriors between 1955 and 1958. The second album contains mostly newspaper clippings between 1954 and 1961.
Dates: 1954-1961, 1965, 1979
Abstract: Corfam® was a synthetic substitute for leather. Collection consists of photographs related to the development and manufacture of DuPont's Corfam® synthetic leather at the Newburgh, New York Corfam® pilot plant and research facility.
Abstract: E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company is a chemical company more commonly referred to as the DuPont Company. The External Affairs Department of the DuPont Company was created on January 1, 1986 by the merger of the Marketing Communications and Public Affairs departments. The records of DuPont External Affairs are divided into two series that reflect the department's principal functions--advertising and public affairs. A large portion of the collection consists of retail sales profiles and trend reports that include background information, research proposals, cost estimates, survey questionnaires, and related correspondence.
Abstract: DuPont Company's Chestnut Run Laboratories first laboratory was the Textile Research Laboratory whose purpose was to test the effects of normal wear and tear on DuPont's line of synthetic fibers and fabrics, it opened in 1954 near Wilmington, Delaware. The Chestnut Run Technical Library is a branch of the DuPont Technical Libraries, which began in 1958. This collection consists of files related to the work of the scientists at the laboratory; their speeches, research articles, and some periodicals and scrapbooks related to textile design. There are also materials related to human resources polices and procedures; documents from a program about the future growth of the company; and a library subject file.
Abstract: The Textile Fibers Department of the DuPont Company was established in 1936 (known then as the Rayon Department) which specialized in researching and developing synthetic fibers for fabrics such as Rayon, Nylon, Teflon, Corian, and Kevlar. Lavoisier Library is the library at the DuPont Company's Experimental Station, a large industrial research facility focused on innovative advancements in chemistry located in Wilmington, Delaware. The records in this collection consists of files assembled to document various aspects of the company's history, its policies and products, and the writings and speeches of executives and researchers.
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Organic Chemicals Department, Dyestuffs Division manuals and notebooks
Abstract: E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company was a chemical company and began a research program in dyes in 1916. By the late 1920s the DuPont Company was one of the four major U.S. dye producers and controlled twenty-five percent of the market. The records consist of notebooks and procedures on dyes, which describe the colors, uses, applications, tests, and fastness and dying properties for dyes manufactured by DuPont and its competitors.
Abstract: E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company is a chemical company more commonly referred to as the DuPont Company. The Public Affairs Department began as the Publicity Bureau in 1916, to deal with issues raised by the great increase of business spawned by World War I. Prior to this time, publicity had been handled by the Advertising Division, created in 1911. The Public Affairs Department records contain biographical sketches of deceased officers, employees, and du Pont family members, as well as histories of company plants, predecessor companies, and all line and staff departments. The alphabetical history file contains press releases, memoranda, and pamphlets that were assembled for various public relations campaigns.
Abstract: The Textile Fibers Department of the DuPont Company was established in 1936 (known then as the Rayon Department) which specialized in researching and developing synthetic fibers for fabrics such as Rayon, Nylon, Teflon, Corian, and Kevlar. This collection consists of materials once housed in the library of the Experimental Station and culled after the sale of the textile fibers business. The collection has been arranged into six series: Vertical file; Translation logs; Miscellany; Project indexes; Publications; Speeches.
Dates: 1906-1998; Majority of material found within 1938-1993
Abstract: The DuPont Company is a chemical company which commercially produces synthetic fibers such as Kevlar. This collection consists of three pieces of artwork which were created for the DuPont Company Textile Fibers Department and hung in a shared work area. The artwork are photostats and are signed “ELF”. The three pictures show various small, cheerful animals making synthetic fiber by three different methods that are actually used (in slightly more sophisticated form) industrially.
Dates: circa 1970
Abstract: Gordon Derby Patterson (1897-1982) was a chemist who spent nearly forty years with the Central Research Department (formerly the Chemical Department) at the E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, a chemical company more commonly referred to as the DuPont Company. In addition to his early work in pigments and rayon, Patterson directed research in high-energy radiation generators, radioactive tracer techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, and absorption spectroscopy. His papers provide extensive documentation for these projects, giving particular emphasis on ideas and suggestions for possible areas of exploration. In addition, there are administrative records, including outlines for research directors and the Steering Committee reviewing the status of current and proposed projects, as well as technical reference materials, such as summary reports, scientific papers, and literature reviews.
Dates: 1920-1966; Majority of material found within 1926-1962
Abstract: Harry J. Haon II (1901-1989) and his son Harry J. Haon III (1934-2013) were chemists and lifetime employees of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, and both came to specialize in sales and marketing. The Harry J. Haon family papers are a collection of correspondence, meeting notes/minutes, drawings/maps, journal articles, DuPont publications, papers expressing once classified information about DuPont products, as well as teaching materials for employees who were novice marketing managers, sales personnel and employees in leadership positions. The collection is composed of two series consisting of the papers of Harry J. Haon, II and Harry J. Haon, III. The careers in DuPont of both Haons are well documented.
Abstract: Hercules Inc. was a manufacturer of chemicals and munitions based in Wilmington, Delaware. On April 23, 1986, the Commision of the European Economic Community ruled that several firms, including S.A. Hercules Chemicals N.V., the Belgian subsidiary of Hercules Incorporated, had violated Article 85(1) of the Treaty of Rome by enganging in price-fixing arrangements for the sale and marketing of polypropylene between 1977 and 1983. This collection consists of two volumes related to the company's appeal.
Abstract: Kevlar is a synthetic fiber developed by chemists Stephanie Kwolek (1923-2014), Paul Morgan (1911-1992), and Herbert Blades in 1965 while working at the DuPont Company. The oral histories presented here document the research and development processes that transformed Kevlar from a novel polymer in the laboratory to a life-changing product in the marketplace.
Abstract: Science and Corporate Strategy is a scholarly history of research and development at the DuPont Company authored by David A. Hounshell (1950-) and John Kenly Smith (1951-). As part of their research, Hounshell and Smith conducted sixty-one oral history interviews with forty-seven current and former chemical engineers involved in DuPont's R & D programs. The interviews constitute an exhaustive first-person account of DuPont's research programs with special emphasis on personalities and the organizational culture of the various DuPont research facilities.
Abstract: James Burton Nichols (1902-1995) was a chemist at the DuPont Company, a chemical research and manufacturing company. He worked at DuPont from 1927 to 1967, researching polymers, pigments, and ultracentrifugation. The Nichols papers include research papers and publications describing research work on the ultracentrifuge, colloid, and polymer chemistry projects.
Abstract: John Raven Johnson (1900-1988) was a professor of chemistry at Cornell University from 1930 until his retirement in 1965. He also served as a consultant to E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company from 1937 until 1951, where he worked for the Organic Chemicals Department. Wallace Hume Carothers (1896-1937) was a chemist and inventor of Neoprene artificial rubber and Nylon synthetic fiber. He worked as a chemist in E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company's Fundamental Research Program from 1928 until his death in 1937. This collection consists of correspondence between Johnson and Carothers, who were close friends as well as colleagues. The letters are both professional and personal in nature. Several letters discuss laboratory research work in polymer chemistry and the role of the catalyst.
Abstract: Joseph Bancroft & Sons Company began operation in 1831 as a cotton cloth manufacturer in Rockford, Delaware. After the Civil War, the company concentrated on finishing cotton cloth. In later years it became famous for its Ban-lon artificial fiber but eventually withdrew from manufacturing in favor of licensing its processes and trademarks to other companies. The records consist of miscellaneous correspondence and reports, possibly from W. Ralph MacIntyre (1897-1984), president. The records include research reports and notebooks on dyeing, bleaching, printing, and finishing of fabrics.
Abstract: Joseph Bancroft, an Englishman trained in textile weaving in Lancashire, established his own cotton mill on the Brandywine near Wilmington, Delaware in 1831. This operation became the Joseph Bancroft & Sons Company in 1889, and in 1929 it absorbed the Eddystone Manufacturing Co. These images include plant exteriors and interiors, officials and employees, aerials, workers' housing, machinery, floods, and dams and races on Brandywine Creek as well as many Ban-Lon and Miss America fashion photographs. This collection includes approximately 1060 images covering a period from the late 19th century to the 1960s.
Dates: circa 1945-1967
Abstract: Joseph W. Lynch was a textile chemist at the DuPont Company from 1954 to 1994. Lynch's papers document his forty-year career at DuPont. Some company records in Lynch's possession antedate his employment, while others describe his job searches from 1952 to 1954. The bulk of the records deal with customer relations, including identifying and resolving problems concerning DuPont's textile fiber products and providing technical assistance to customers.
Dates: 1943-1994; Majority of material found within 1954-1979
Abstract: J. Edward Norton (1925-2009) worked for the DuPont Company in the Textile Fibers Department as a technical marketing specialist. The notebook he maintained includes company technical memoranda and bulletins covering the processing of Nylon, Orlon, and Dacron, the production of wool-polyester blends, and the carding, spinning, knitting, and finishing of artificial fibers.
Abstract: The Textile Fibers Department of the DuPont Company was established in 1936 as the Rayon Department, which specialized in researching and developing synthetic fibers for fabrics such as Nylon, Orlon, Dacron, and Lycra. The collection consists of oral history interviews conducted by Joseph Plasky, with former employees of DuPont's Textile Fibers department.
Dates: 2007-2010; 2014-2020
Abstract: Paul W. Morgan (1911-1992) was a research chemist who spent his thirty-five-year career working in the DuPont Company's Pioneering Research Laboratory, part of the Textile Fibers Department (formerly the Rayon Department). His contributions include interfacial polycondensation reactions, a previously unexplored field of polymer chemistry. Morgan’s polymer condensation research ultimately yielded several commercially successful products. Among these were Nomex®, a high-temperature-resistant, thermally stable aramid fiber; Fiber B, a new tire reinforcing fiber that was twice as strong as ordinary synthetic tire yarns; and PRD-49, a high-modulus organic fiber marketed as Kevlar® aramid fiber. In addition to documenting Morgan’s career with DuPont, this collection also contains materials relating to the history of hand tools and tool manufacturers, amassed by Morgan following his retirement.
Dates: 1872-1990; Majority of material found within 1945-1989
Abstract: Stephanie Louise Kwolek (1923-2014) was an American chemist known for inventing Kevlar. The papers of Stephanie L. Kwolek chronicle her work over a forty year span at the DuPont Company. The collection includes patents, journal articles, awards, subject files, and speeches that were either produced by or aided Kwolek in her work.
Abstract: Wallace Hume Carothers (1896-1937) was a chemist and inventor of Neoprene artificial rubber and Nylon synthetic fiber. He worked as a chemist in E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company's Fundamental Research Program from 1928 until his death in 1937. This small collection consists of a mixture of materials collected in the decades following Carothers death related to the development of Nylon and polymerization. Included are reprinted articles, patent applications, biographical materials, and newspaper clippings.
Abstract: Wallace Hume Carothers (1896-1937) was a chemist and inventor of Neoprene artificial rubber and Nylon synthetic fiber. He worked as a chemist in E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company's Fundamental Research Program from 1928 until his death in 1937. This small collection consists of Carothers' professional and technical correspondence, primarily with colleagues in the Chemistry Department at Iowa State University, Harvard, and the DuPont Company. The papers describe the DuPont Company's recruitment of Carothers and his work on polymerization, which led to the development of Nylon.
Abstract: The William Pahlmann papers provide a rich insight into the world of interior design in the middle of the twentieth century. Pahlmann (1900-1987) was well known for his use of bold colors, textures and mix of antique and modern furnishings. Stressed in all of his work, were the conventions of comfort and functionality as well as his clients individual tastes. The William Pahlmann Papers are organized into thirty unique series of varying sizes. The papers are organized into correspondence, publicity files, renderings, samples, artifacts, design plans, and client invoices.
- Subject: Textile fibers, Synthetic X
- Manuscripts and Archives 26
- Audiovisual Collections 13
- Textile industry 17
- Chemical industry 9
- Research, Industrial 9
- Industrial chemists 8
- Dyes and dyeing 6
- Nylon 5
- Synthetic fibers industry -- Employees 5
- Oral histories 4
- Patents 4
- Polymerization 4
- Polymers -- Research 4
- Testing laboratories 4
- Children's clothing 3
- Explosives industry 3
- Marketing 3
- Men's clothing 3
- Polymers 3
- Polyphenyleneterephthalamide 3
- Public relations 3
- Rubber, Artificial 3
- Textile factories 3
- Textile research 3
- Women's clothing industry 3
- Advertisements 2
- Bathing suits 2
- Correspondence 2
- Dacron 2
- Fashion designers 2
- Fashion merchandising 2
- Finishes and finishing 2
- Industrial safety 2
- Inventors 2
- Speeches 2
- Textile fabrics -- Sample books 2
- Advertising campaigns 1
- Antifreeze solutions 1
- Astronautics 1
- Astronauts 1
- Atlantic City (N.J.) 1
- Chemical engineering 1
- Chemical plants 1
- Chemistry, Organic 1
- Clothing and dress 1
- Color 1
- Construction projects 1
- Corporate image 1
- Corporate reorganizations 1
- Cotton manufacture 1
- Customer relations 1
- Decorative arts 1
- Display of merchandise 1
- Employees -- Training of 1
- Employees' magazines, newsletters, etc. 1
- Evidence (Law) 1
- Factories 1
- Footwear 1
- Furniture industry and trade 1
- Game and game-birds 1
- Gunpowder industry 1
- Gunpowder, Smokeless 1
- Hosiery industry 1
- Hunting 1
- Industrial relations 1
- Interior decoration 1
- Laboratory notebooks 1
- Laundry -- Equipment and supplies 1
- Leather, Artificial 1
- Lighting, Architectural and decorative 1
- Lucite 1
- Manuals (Instructional materials) 1
- Marketing research 1
- Moon -- Exploration 1
- Nuclear energy 1
- Orlon 1
- Packaging -- Design 1
- Patent suits 1
- Plastics industry and trade 1
- Polyester films 1
- Polyethylene 1
- Polyethylene terephthalate 1
- Polytef 1
- Prices 1
- Reports 1
- Sales personnel -- Training of 1
- Sample books 1
- Saw industry 1
- Scrapbooks 1
- Technical drawings 1
- Technological innovations 1
- Television 1
- Testing 1
- Tetraethyllead 1
- Tools 1
- Trapshooting 1
- Trial and arbitral proceedings 1
- Underwear 1
- Weapons industry -- Employees 1
- Women in STEM 1
- Women inventors 1 ∧ less
- Italian 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company 9
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Textile Fibers Department 9
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Experimental Station 6
- Carothers, Wallace Hume, 1896-1937 4
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Chestnut Run Laboratories 4
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Pioneering Research Laboratory 4
- Smith, John K. (John Kenly) 3
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Central Research and Development Department 2
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Public Relations Department 2
- Greenewalt, Crawford H., 1902-1993 2
- Hounshell, David A. 2
- Joseph Bancroft & Sons Co 2
- Kwolek, Stephanie, 1923-2014 2
- 302 Stories, Inc 1
- American Telephone and Telegraph Company 1
- Apollo 15 (Spacecraft) 1
- Atlas Powder Company 1
- Bessette, John H., 1915-2002 1
- Beyer-Semsan Company 1
- Cousins, Margaret, 1905-1996 1
- DeMirjian, Charles H., 1925-2021 1
- Dick, John A., 1879-1972 1
- Directors of Industrial Research (U.S.) 1
- Du Pont family 1
- Du Pont, Irénée, 1876-1963 1
- E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company. Organic Chemicals Department. Dyestuffs Division 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Advertising Department 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Biochemicals Department 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Central Research Department 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Chamber Works 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Chemicals and Pigments Department 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Chestnut Run Laboratories. Library 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Development Department 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Executive Committee 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Fabrics and Finishes Department 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Grasselli Chemicals Department 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Lavoisier Library 1
- E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Organic Chemicals Department 1
- European Economic Community 1
- Fiber Concepts, Inc. 1
- Fred Hess & Son 1
- General Electric Company 1
- General Motors Corporation 1
- Hagley Museum and Library. Library. Oral History Project Office 1
- Haon, Harry J., II, 1901-1989 1
- Haon, Harry J., III, 1934-2013 1
- Hayden, Oliver M. (Oliver Mills), 1893-1991 1
- Hercules Incorporated 1
- Hercules Powder Company 1
- Holden, E. K. (Ellsworth K.), 1925-1991 1
- Hueper, Wilhelm 1
- Hull, Donald R., 1911-1995 1
- Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd 1
- Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft 1
- Jackson, Oscar R. (Oscar Raymond), 1855-1916 1
- Johnson, John R. (John Raven), 1900-1988 1
- Krebs Pigment & Chemical Company 1
- Lynch, Joseph W. 1
- Maxim, Hudson, 1853-1927 1
- Morgan, Paul W. 1
- Nichols, James Burton, 1902-1995 1
- Norton, J. Edward (James Edward), 1925-2009 1
- Oates, Michael 1
- Pahlmann, William C., 1900-1987 1
- Patterson, Gordon D., Sr. (Gordon Derby), 1897-1982 1
- Plasky, Joseph G. 1
- Runge, Otto 1
- Rutledge, Charles H. 1
- Schupphaus, Robert C. 1
- Shambelan, Charles, 1930-2018 1
- Sparre, Fin, 1879-1944 1
- Texas A & M University 1
- United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration 1
- Unknown 1
- William Pahlmann Associates 1 ∧ less