Henry Bower Chemical Manufacturing Company records1854-1957
Henry Bower Chemical Manufacturing Company was a chemical manufacturing company that primarily produced ammonia. The company was formed in 1906 by the merger of three existing companies. The records include account books, production records, sales records, and inventories.
- Henry Bower Chemical Manufacturing Company (Organization)
21 Linear Feet
Henry Bower Chemical Manufacturing Company was a chemical manufacturing company that primarily produced ammonia. The company was formed in 1906 by the merger of the Ammonia Company of Philadelphia, the Kalion Chemical Company, and the Baltimore Chrome Works. The Bower family controlled it until November 1967, when the company was sold to Pickands Mather & Company of Cleveland.
Henry Bower (1833-1896) was the son of Wilhelm Bauer (1790–1874)(who anglicized his name to William Bower), a drug broker who came from Hamburg to Philadelphia in 1825. His uncle, George D. Rosengarten (1801-1890), was a leading drug manufacturer in Philadelphia. Henry Bower graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1854 and established himself as a drug broker at 7 South Front Street the following year. In 1858, Bower began to manufacture his own chemicals at a small plant on Gray's Ferry Road. He was the first to produce pure inodorous glycerine for use in medicines. He also manufactured ammonium sulphate from the condenser and waste liquors of the Philadelphia Gas Works.
In 1865, Bower added a chamber process plant to manufacture sulphuric acid, a major ingredient in the manufacture of ammonium sulphate. He also developed and marketed a "complete manure," a fertilizer consisting of sand, phosphate, potash, lime, and ammonia between 1867 and 1877. In 1894, Bower began manufacturing aqua ammonia from ammonium sulphate, and in 1903 his sons began the production of anhydrous ammonia.
In 1867, Bower also began manufacturing potassium ferrocyanide, using nitrogenous animal matter (hooves, horns, and recycled leather). Potassium ferrocyanide was used to produce "Prussian blue" pigments, and Bower's output was marketed by the Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Company of New York. Eventually, the animal wastes were replaced by cyanogen derived from gas works waste. When potash from Germany was cut off during World War I, the firm developed a process to substitute sodium cyanide derived from sodium carbonate.
In 1882, Bower, Thomas S. Harrison (1837-1919) of the Harrison Brothers paint firm, and Henry Pemberton (1826-1911) of the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company joined in investing in Pemberton's manufacturing bichromate process that was used in the tanning and textile industries. The following year they organized the Kalion Chemical Company, adjoining the Bowers plant. When the Pemberton process proved commercially unviable, they reverted to the conventional lime and potash process. Bower became the sole owner of the company in 1892.
Henry Bower brought his sons William H. Bower (1864–1956), George R. Bower (1866–1919), Frank B. Bower (1871–1958), and his son-in-law, Sydney Thayer (1867–1932), into the business, the title of which was changed to Henry Bower & Sons in 1855. The firm was incorporated as the Ammonia Company of Philadelphia in 1887. In 1893, they imported from Belgium the Lambotte process for the manufacture of tetrachloride of tin and the Deacon process to manufacture chlorine.
In 1902, the Bowers bought the Kalion Company's major competitor, the Baltimore Chrome Works, which Isaac Tyson (1792–1861) had founded in 1845. The Kalion plant was closed, and production concentrated in Baltimore. The three firms were consolidated as the Henry Bower Chemical Manufacturing Company in 1906. Two years later, the Bowers merged their chrome division with the American Chrome Works of Arlington, Massachusetts, and the Mutual Chemical Company of Jersey City to form the Mutual Chemical Company of America. In 1911, the Bower Chemical Manufacturing Company purchased the business and equipment of Carter & Scattergood, an old competitor in the manufacture of Prussiate of potash.
Scope and Contents
The records consist of a selection of material removed from the plant after the sale to Pickands Mather & Company. Most of the material antedating the 1906 incorporation appears not to have survived. The records include account books, production records, sales records, and inventories.
The account books include: general ledgers (1905-1952); journals (1925-1937); cash books (1931-1947); journal vouchers (1937-1949); office petty cash book (1925-1937); cost ledgers (1904-1937); cash receipt book (1941-1943); trial balance books (1937-1940); voucher registers (1931-1956); voucher register transfer books (1942-1944); profit and loss statements (1936-1945); bank deposit books (1936-1944); posting sheets (1942-1944); and notes and bills receivable (1924-1942).
The production records include primarily cost accounting records: distribution of distributing expenses (1931-1937); distribution of manufacturing expenses (1931-1937); distribution of manufacturing supplies (1931-1937); distribution of general expenses (1931-1937); raw materials expense register (1957); cost of materials registers (1948-1949); and notarial registers (1937-1942).
Sales records include: sales reports (1926-1934); sales register (1931-1936); package ledgers (1905-1906); sales ledgers (1924-1929); and soda shipment memorandum books (1942-1944). Inventories include: raw materials inventories (1944-1947, 1952-1953); inventory cards (1940-1941); and inventory memorandum books (1930-1949).
Miscellaneous materials include: employee time sheets (1945-1946); inspector's weekly reports from the General Committee on Safety Organization (1919-1936); correspondence with the Michigan Alkali Company (1939-1942); and a number of personal and family items, including William H. Bower's yacht accounts (1924-1937).
This collection is open for research.
- Henry Bower Chemical Manufacturing Company (Organization)
Finding Aid & Administrative Information
- Henry Bower Chemical Manufacturing Company records
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- 2021: Laurie Sather