Samuel Francis Du Pont selected papers (microfilm)1859-1864
Samuel Francis du Pont (1803-1865) was an Admiral in the United States Navy and fought in the Mexican-American War and the Civil War. He was the fourth child and second surviving son of Victor Marie du Pont (1767-1827) and his wife, Gabrielle Joséphine de la Fite de Pelleport (1770-1837). The collection is a microfilmed selection of du Pont's correspondence with contemporaries, primarily Alexander Dallas Bache (1806-1867). The letters concern Civil War activities, especially the use of ironclads in naval operations.
1 item(s) (Microfilm)
Samuel Francis du Pont (1803-1865) was an Admiral in the United States Navy and fought in the Mexican-American War and the Civil War.
Samuel Francis du Pont was born at Bergen Point (now Bayonne), New Jersey, on September 27, 1803. He was the fourth child and second surviving son of Victor Marie du Pont (1767-1827) and his wife, Gabrielle Joséphine de la Fite de Pelleport (1770-1837).
In 1815, du Pont received a commission as midshipmen in the United States Navy. During the next thirty years he rose steadily within the ranks, becoming a commander attached to the Pacific squadron in 1844. During the Mexican-American War he earned distinction for his defense of the California blockade. After the Mexican War, du Pont began a decade-long tour of shore duty attempting to improve naval and marine affairs and serving as a member of the board that established the Naval Academy at Annapolis. In 1855, he was appointed to the Naval Efficiency Board which was investigating nepotism and incompetence in the officer corps.
At the start of the Civil War du Pont was appointed a senior member of the Commission of Conference to establish naval operations for the North. du Pont was put in charge of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron and broke his flag on the U.S.S. Wabash. In November of 1861 he lead a successful campaign that captured Port Royal in South Carolina. Because of the success of this operation, du Pont was promoted to rear admiral in July 1862. The Union remained in control of Port Royal which was the headquarters of du Pont's blockading squadron. By late 1862 there was considerable tension building between Port Royal and Washington as pressure mounted for an attack on Charleston. The plan was to have the new ironclad monitors lead the assault. In 1863 du Pont's fleet of ironclads were unsuccessful at taking Charleston. This defeat, in one of the most highly publicized naval battles of the Civil War, was a tremendous blow to the Union. Blame was placed on du Pont, who was immediately relieved of his command.
Upon his return to Washington, du Pont was ostracized. During the summer of 1863 he exchanged a series of barbed letters with Secretary Gideon Welles (1802-1878) and enlisted Henry Winter Davis (1817-1865), the acknowledged leader of the congressional opposition, to serve as his spokesman on Capitol Hill. When the Navy refused to publish du Pont's report on the Charleston attack, Davis thought that it would be politically advantageous to criticize the administration over this issue. He secured a joint congressional resolution calling upon the Navy Department to produce all of du Pont's reports and correspondence. When Welles did so, the tables were turned. Charged with misusing the monitors at Charleston and misleading his superiors, du Pont was virtually put on trial before Congress. After the congressional hearing, du Pont appealed to Abraham Lincoln for vindication. When the president refused to meet with him, he retired to his home at Louviers. In March 1865 he returned to Washington to serve on a board that was set up to recommend distinguished naval officers for promotion. On June 23, 1865, while on a visit to Philadelphia with his wife, he died.
Scope and Contents
Selected microfilmed papers of Samuel Francis du Pont (1803-1865) including correspondencewith Alexander Dallas Bache (1806-1867), Gideon Welles (1802-1878), Reverdy Johnson (1786-1876), Alonzo Potter (1800-1865), and others, largely concerning with Civil War activities, particularly the use of ironclads in naval operations.
Location of Originals
Originals in the Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
No restrictions on access; this collection is open for research.
Not to be reproduced. Permission needs to be granted from the Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California.
Language of Materials
Finding Aid & Administrative Information
- Samuel Francis Du Pont selected papers (microfilm)
- John Beverly Riggs
- Description rules:
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description:
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- 2021: Ashley Williams