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Sperry Rand Corporation, Engineering Research Associates (ERA) Division records
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Sperry Rand Corporation, Engineering Research Associates (ERA) Division records

Accession 2015

Manuscripts and Archives Department, Hagley Museum and Library


PO Box 3630
Wilmington, Delaware, 19807
302-658-2400
research@hagley.org

Finding aid prepared by Michael H. Nash, 1994

This finding aid was produced using the Archivists' Toolkit 2013-05-03T13:29-0400

Finding aid prepared using best local practices and Describing Archives: A Content Standard

Cite items for this collection in the following format:
[Description and dates], Box/folder number, Sperry Rand Corporation, Engineering Research Associates (ERA) Division records (Accession 2015), Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, DE 19807

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Descriptive Summary

Title: Sperry Rand Corporation, Engineering Research Associates (ERA) Division records
Dates: 1949-1965
Accession Number: 2015
Creator: Sperry Rand Corporation. Engineering Research Associates Division.
Extent: 18 linear feet
Language of Material: English
Repository: Hagley Museum and Library: Manuscripts and Archives Department
Abstract: Engineering Research Associates (ERA) origins can be traced to the classified World War II-era Navy project to break the German secret codes by using electronic data processing. After the war, ERA became a private sector company that did pioneering work in computer development. In 1952, it was purchased by Remington Rand. The records include the correspondence of ERA's founding engineers including William Norris and Arnold Cohen. Also included is business and technical correspondence, legal records, patents, and oral histories.
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Administrative Information


Provenance

Deposit of Unisys Corporation

Use Restrictions

Literary rights retained by depositor.

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Historical Note

Engineering Research Associates' (ERA) origins can be traced to a classified World War II era Navy project which recruited highly skilled cryptologists, mathematicians, engineers, and physicists to break German and Japanese codes in order to pinpoint the movements of their ships. These tasks required the use of computing devices that could calculate data at ever increasing speeds. This led to an effort to investigate electronic solutions to cryptologic problems.

The work of this group was coordinated by Commander Howard T. Engstrom, who before the war had been a professor of mathematics at Yale University; and Lt. Commander William C. Norris, former sales manager for Westinghouse. After the war, the Navy made an effort to keep this team together and offered several members civil service appointments. However, Engstrom and Norris preferred to go into business for themselves. In the fall of 1945, they began searching for financial backing, but this proved to be difficult because they were unable to discuss their classified projects with potential investors. Finally, John Parker, a Wall Street investment banker and former head of Northwestern Aeronautical Corporation, provided the necessary capital. In January 1946, Engineering Research Associates was formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where John Parker was based.

In the fall of 1946, ERA received its first major contract from the Office of Naval Research to compile a report on “High Speed Computing Devices”. This report, which became the definitive study of the infant state of computing, was later published in book form by McGraw Hill. During this project, ERA personnel was given access to classified government reports and worked with computer pioneers John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, inventors of the ENIAC, and John von Neumann, of Princeton University's Institute for Advanced Study.

ERA was dependent on government funded cost-plus--fixed-fee contracts. In August 1947, it began work for the Navy on Task 13 - a project to design a general all-purpose stored-program computer. During this project ERA developed the first magnetic storage drum; the technology upon which the next two generations of computers was based. In October, 1950, ERA completed work on the Atlas computer - America's first electronic stored-program computer. The Atlas with its 2,700 vacuum tubes was capable of running twenty-four hours a day with only 10% of the time allotted for maintenance.

ERA hoped to establish a niche in the private sector. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, it worked with TWA to develop an automated airline reservation system. It also had a number of contracts with Prudential Insurance Company. However, the Navy was its primary customer. This left it vulnerable to Washington politics. Even though it was recognized as the most advanced computer company in the world, Drew Pearson's 1951 column in the “Washington Merry Go Round” charged Norris and Engstrom had used war time government connections to advance their private business. Pearson charged that ERA's Navy contracts represented a clear conflict of interest and were not subjected to competitive bidding. By 1952, under considerable political pressure, ERA merged with the Remington Rand Corporation. At first it operated as a semi-autonomous division, but after the 1955 Sperry merger, it was consolidated with the Eckert-Mauchly division of Sperry Rand and became part of Sperry-UNIVAC. William Norris never found this to be a satisfactory relationship. In 1957, Norris left Sperry to establish the Control Data Corporation. Later that year, the ERA people who remained were given a good deal more autonomy when Sperry created its St. Paul Research Division led by Sidney Rubens and Arnold Cohen. This division's primary job was to develop computer systems for the military and it played a crucial role in developing the command and control systems for the U. S.'s International Continental Ballistic Missiles and early space satellites. In 1960, what was left of the ERA group became Sperrys' Military Division, which was renamed the Aerospace Division. Accession 1952 - archives of the Aerospace Division - contains records from these periods.

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Scope and Content

The ERA records include correspondence, technical reports and memoranda, minutes of the administrative, manufacturing, planning and engineering committees which describe work on the LARC, ERA 1101 and 1103, the Rapid Selector, and the bore hole camera. There are also records documenting ERA's involvement with the U.S. missle and rocketry programs of the late 1950s. ERA's successful effort to build airborne computers for the Jupiter and Sparrow programs are described.

Other projects described include ERA's Rapid Selector, airline reservation system, and high speed printer. There are several reports which document some of the early work that was done with transistors and efforts to incorporate this into the computers that were being developed during the late 1950s.

The records make it clear that much of ERA's research and development work was focused on the problem of magnetic core storage. There was an attempt to coordinate these activities with the work being done at the Philadelphia research laboratory (Eckert-Mauchly division) and the Norwalk, Ct., laboratory. However, William Norris' correspondence shows that there was a good deal of competition between the Eckert-Mauchly and ERA people which inhibited progress on many projects.

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Separated Material

Engineering Research Associates photographs (Accession 2006.202), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department, Hagley Museum and Library

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Access Points

ATLAS (Computer).
Cohen, Arnold A.
Computer engineering.
Computer industry--United States.
Computer storage devices.
Computers.
Coombs, John.
Cryptography.
ERA 1101 (Computer).
ERA 1103 (Computer).
Electronic data processing.
Engineering Research Associates.
Engstrom, Howard T. (Howard Theodore), 1902-1962.
Keye, William R., 1921-.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Norris, William C., 1911-.
Project Goldberg.
Remington Rand, inc. Eckert-Mauchly Division.
Research, Industrial.
United States. Office of Naval Research.
Whirlwind computer.
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Series Descriptions and Inventory

I. William Norris papers
A. Administrative Records, 1953-1957
Scope and Content
Administrative records includes memoranda from the Research Division, Engineering Department, Operations Division, Manufacturing Division, Product Planning Committee and Patent Department. These records describe the relationship between ERA and Sperry Rand. They focus on administrative issues - corporate organization, strategic planning, personnel policy, research priorities, allocation of resources, and fiscal accountability. There are several files which describe the relationship between the ERA and Eckert-Mauchly divisions and documents the ways in which work was allocated to allow ERA to focus on military and Eckert-Mauchly to focus on civilian projects.
Box Folder
1 1 Engineering Department Memoranda, 1953-1954
1 2 Engineering Department Memoranda, 1955-1957
1 3 Operations Division, Technical Memoranda, March 1950 - June 1951
1 4 Operations Division, Technical Memoranda, 1952-1953
1 5 Operations Division, Technical Memoranda, 1953-1954
1 6 Research Division, minutes and correspondence, 1956-1959
1 7 New York Central Railroad - computerized reservation system, 1954
Box Folder
2 1 William Norris, General Correspondence, 1950-1953
2 2 William Norris, General Correspondence, 1954-1955
2 3 William Norris, General Correspondence, 1956-1957
2 4 Administrative Committee - Remington Rand, Dec. 1955 - May 1956
2 4a Eckert-Mauchly Division Correspondence, 1955-1957
2 5 Engineering Committee minutes, 1952-1959
2 6 Engineering Committee minutes, 1956
2 7 Engineering Division, General Correspondence, 1954
2 8 Financial Planning and Control, 1956
2 9 Form Committee, 1956
2 10 Information Science Division, 1956
2 11 Legal Division, 1953-1956
2 12 Management Meeting minutes, 1957
2 13 Manufacturing Division, 1953-1957
2 14 Military Engineering Division, Remington Rand
2 15-16 Management Policies - Administrative Procedures, 1947-1956
2 17 Norwalk Laboratory - Employment, Salaries, Classifications, 1956-1957
2 18 Patent Department, 1958
2 19 Plant Locations, 1957
2 20-22 Product Planning Committee, 1956-1957
2 23 UNIVAC Division Monthly Progress reports
B. General Correspondence
Scope and Content
General correspondence documents major projects and contracts. These files describe work on the magnetic storage drum and the ERA 1101 and 1103 computer systems. The records document ERA's contracts with the Bureau of Ships, Atomic Energy Commission, the National Bureau of Standards, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. There are also files on competitive systems (mostly IBM), sales and marketing records, contracts and correspondence - documenting efforts to market the UNIVAC I and II. Software development files include correspondence of Admiral Grace Hopper.
Arrangement
Arranged alphabetically.
Box Folder
2 24 Accounting Systems Electronic (Port Authority, NY)
2 25 Advertising, Sales, Promotion
2 26 Air Force, 1103 Computer, 1953
2 27 Airport - time utilization - magnetic storage drum, 1949
2 28 Airline Flight Plan Storage System, 1951
2 29 Airline Reservation System, 1949
2 30 Association for Computing Machinery, 1947-1948 [(includes proceedings of first meeting, Aberdeen, MD, 1947)]
2 31 Atomic Energy Commission re High Speed Digital Computers, 1956
2 32 Auerbach Corporation, 1965
Box Folder
3 1 Binary Computer Coding, 1948
3 2 Bureau of Ships (Directory)
3 2a Charactron Rapromatic, 1956
3 3 Cohen, Arnold, 1956-1960
3 3a Competitors, 1953-1957
3 3b Competitors, 1956
3 4 Competitors, IBM, 1953-1955
3 5 Competitors - IBM, 1955
3 6 Competitors - IBM, 1957
3 7 Competitors - Logistics Research
3 8 Computing Centers, 1952-1956
3 9 Computing Centers, 1956
3 10 Computing Center (Arlington, VA)
3 11 Contributions
3 12-15 Customer Contacts - UNIVAC I
3 16-18 Customer Correspondence (general), 1955-1957
3 19 Customer Correspondence “A”, 1952
3 19a Customer Correspondence “B”, 1954-1956
3 20 Customer Correspondence “N”, 1952-1957
3 21 Customer Correspondence “T”, 1953-1956
3 22 Customer Correspondence “U”, 1953-1955
3 23 Customer Correspondence “V”, 1953-1955
3 24 Customer Correspondence “W”, 1953-1956
Box Folder
4 1 Customer Correspondence “B” UNIVAC I
4 2 Customer Correspondence “M” UNIVAC I
4 3 Customer Correspondence “I” UNIVAC I
4 4 Customer Correspondence “S” UNIVAC I
4 5 Customer Correspondence “T” UNIVAC I
4 6 Customer Correspondence “U” UNIVAC I
4 7 Customer Correspondence “W” UNIVAC I
4 8 Customer Correspondence “B” UNIVAC II
4 9 Customer Correspondence “M” UNIVAC II
4 10 Customer Correspondence “N” UNIVAC II
4 11 Customer Correspondence “O” UNIVAC II
4 12 Customer Correspondence “R” UNIVAC II
4 13 Customer Correspondence “S” UNIVAC II
4 14 Customer Correspondence “T” UNIVAC II
4 15 Cunningham, W.R. re employment, 1956
4 16 Defence Marketing Project MAC, 1963
4 17 Delchamps, H.J. (vita)
4 18 Demonstration Calculator, 1956
4 18a Disc File
4 19 Digital Communications
4 19a Document Handling Equipment
4 19b Dunn & Bradstreet credit report
4 19c Dumex, Arnold (consultant)
4 21 Eckert-Mauchly salary information
4 21a Eckert-Mauchly requisitions
4 22 EDVAC Display
4 22a 80-90 Column Equipment
4 23 Engineering Tuition Policy
4 24 ERA “Home Office Presentation”, 1953
4 25 ERA 1101 & 1103 Computers, 1952-1953
4 26 ERA 1103 and its competitors, 1954
4 27 ERA 1103 and its competitors, 1954-1955
4 28 ERA and its competitors, 1955
4 29 ERA 1103 A Program Schedule Review Meeting minutes, 1956
4 30 ERA Annual Reports, 1948, 1949, 1950
4 31 ERA Financial Statements, 1951, 1952
4 32 Error Prevention System - License Agreement, 1955-1957
4 33 Fry, Thornton (consultant)
4 33a Ferracators Production of Magnetic Cores, 1957
4 34 Ford Instrument Company, 1956
4 35 Forecast of Operations UNIVAC Division, 1957-1961
4 36 409 Computer, 1953-1957
4 37 GEMAC Calculator, 1956
4 38 General Standard Practice - Personnel Policy, 1957
4 39 Gutterman, Robert (consultant)
4 40 Hardenbergh, Robert
4 41 High Speed Sorter, 1956
4 42 High Speed Writing and Selective Altering of Digital Information of Magnetic Surfaces (Bureau of Ships), 1950
4 43 High Speed Printer, 1953-1954
Box Folder
5 1 Hooper, Admiral Grace, 1953-1954
5 2-3 IBM-Sperry Licensing Agreement, 1956
5 4 IBM Sponsored Design of Magnetic Drum Calculator, 1949-1953
5 5 Input/Output Media, 1947
5 6-8 Industrial Relations, 1953-1954
5 9 International Telemeter Corp., 1954-1955
5 10-12 Laboratory Administration, 1951-1956
5 13 Laminar Drum Development, 1956
5 14 LARC computer, 1955-1957
5 15 Licensing Agreements, 1956
5 16 Magnetic Core Program, 1953-1957
5 17 Magnetic Delay Lines
5 18 Magnetic Drum Calculator, report, 1950
5 19 Magnetic Drum Calculator (project E 46 Technical Memoranda), 1950
5 20 Magnetic Drum Historical Record at ERA, 1954
5 21 Magnetic Drum Storage for Digital Information Processing Systems, 1949
5 22 Magnetic Drum Technique for Telegraph Storage Relay, 1949
5 23 Magnetic Heads
5 24 Magnetic Records (Arnold Cohen), 1947
5 25 Magnetic Storage Drum Memory (includes National Bureau of Standards Report), 1948
5 26 Magnetic Storage for Digital Information Processing Systems, 1949
5 27 Magnetic Storage Systems, 1953-1954
5 28 Magnetic Storage Unit Characteristics, 1949
5 29 Magnetic Switch Blocks, undated
5 30 Magnetic Tape Program, 1957
5 31 Magnetic Tape (technical memoranda), 1956
Box Folder
6 1 Maintenance Electronic Services, Inc., 1957
6 2 Management Training
6 3 Mass Storage, 1955-1957
6 4-5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - MAC memoranda, 1963-1964
6 6 MITHRA Laboratory (Norwalk, CT), 1957
6 7 Medium Speed Printer, 1956
6 8 Mid Continent Engineering, 1954
6 9 Midwest Research Institute, 1957
6 10 Military Systems Engineering Facility, 1957
6 11 Minnesota Electronics Company, 1955
6 12 Minnesota Club
6 13 Minnesota Nuclear Operations Group, 1956
6 14 Missile Rocket Survey (J.G. Miles), 1957
6 15 National Bureau of Standards Proposal to Build a digital computer, 1948
6 16 National Bureau of Standards Report and Contract, 1948
6 17 National Industrial Conference Board
6 18 Ore Car Weighing
6 19 Organization Charts
6 20 Overhead
6 21 Over time
6 22 Personnel Recruitment
6 23 Point of Sale Recorder and Tape to Card Converter
6 24 Plant Operations
6 25 Powers SAMAS Accounting Machine Ltd.
6 26 Product Planning - digital computers
6 27 Print Circuit Laboratory, 1955-1957
6 28 Printing Punch
6 29 Prints (records of)
6 30 Progress Reports - Task Order I, 1947
6 31 Pulseo Transformers
6 32 Product Design Dept.
6 33 Product Development Committee
6 34 Product R & D File
6 35 Project Planning and Cost Controls
6 36 Publications Department
6 37 Punched Card Product Planning
6 38 Punched Card System Board
6 39 Purchasing
Box Folder
7 1-2 Radio Electronics Manufacturing Association - International News, , 1956
7 3 Raytheon Nomad Project
7 4 READ PUNCH UNIT, 1954-1956
7 5 Record Storage
7 6-7 Requisitions
7 8 Research & Development (general)
7 9 Roberts, A.E. (consultant agreement)
7 10 Rotary Club
7 11 Sales, 1950-1953
7 12 Sales, 1954-1955
7 13 Sales, 1956-1957
7 14 Sales Coordinating Committee - INIVAC Division, 1955
7 15 Sales Promotion, 1953-1957
7 16 Sales Promotion, 1957
7 17-18 Sales Reports, 1957
7 19 Sales and Related Technical Correspondence, 1955
7 20 Sales and Technical Correspondence, 1956
7 21 Security
7 22 Sears Roebuck & Company - Armour County Equipment
7 23-24 Selective Alteration of
7 25 Sperry Corporation, 1955
7 26 Sperry Corporation, 1956-1957
Box Folder
8 1 Sperry Rand
8 2 Storage Problems in Digital Computers - Seminar, 1947
8 3 Systems Planning Status Report
8 4 Teleregister Corporation (Collins Radio)
8 5-7 Toll Collection
8 8 Traffic Engineering
8 9 Tuscon facility
8 10-12 UNIVAC
8 13 UNIVAC Costs
8 14 UNIVAC - ERA Sales
8 15 UNIVAC Sales reports, 1951-1957
8 16 UNIVAC 1101
8 17 UNIVAC 1103
8 18-19 UNIVAC II Sales Prospects
8 20 UNIVAC Management
8 21 Project Whirlwind Harvard Computational Laboratory
8 22 Zenith Radio Corp.
Box
8 a Remington Rand, 1952-1957
8 a Republic Steel presentation, 1956
II. Arnold Cohen papers
Scope and Content
Arnold Cohen's papers focus on Research & Development. There is considerable information on the development of magnetic storage and ERA's contracts with the Office of Naval Research for the building of the Atlas Computer. There are also files describing the relationship between ERA and M.I.T.'s Servomechanism Laboratory, and the Lawrence Livermore Radiation Laboratory. The latter describe the LARC computer project. Records documenting the 1947 symposium at Harvard University on “Large Scale Digital Calculating Machinery” describe early efforts to develop airline reservation systems and to automate procedures at Prudential Insurance Company.
A. General Files
9 1 ERA Product Descriptions
9 2 Facilities and Personnel - St. Paul, Minnesota
9 3 Film Memory (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Project), 1961-1963
9 4 International Conference on Information Processing, 1958
9 5 LARC Computer System - General Description
9 6 Lawrence Livermore - University of California Radiation Laboratory - LARC Computer, 1959-1960
9 7 Lawrence Livermore Radiation Laboratory - Hyper Computer
9 8 Magnetic Film Memory
9 9 Magnetic Storage, 1957-1959
9 10 Memory Systems (Magnetic Tape Handler), 1960
9 11 Mount Pocono Conference on Logical Design, 1960
9 12 Peripheral Equipment, 1960
9 13 Peripheral Subsystems, 1966
9 14 Princeton Meeting - Commercial Engineering, January, 1966
9 15 Project 274,000 Systems Development, 1957
9 16 Project 9080 - Character Representation, 1955
9 17 Thin Film Manufacture, 1963
9 18 “X” type Military Computer
9 19 “XU” 72 Computer System, 1959
B. Files - re: Development of Magnetic Storage
9 20 General File, Project B-3001 (includes preliminary proposal to Office of Naval Research “Computing Machine Investigation”, 1946), 1946-1959
9 21 Office of Naval Research, Bread Board Computer (Tompkins), 1947
9 22 Arnold Cohen's Trip Report MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory, 1947
9 23 Acoustic Delay Lines (project 3001) Naval Research Laboratories, 1945
9 F24 Basic System Design Task Order 13, 1947-1950
9 25 Basic Toggles and Gates, 1948
9 26 High Speed Computing Devices (McGraw Hill)
9 27 “Magnetic Drum Storage for Digital Information Processing Systems” paper by Arnold Cohen
9 28 “Development in Methods of Electrostatic Storage” report to the Bureau of Ships, 1949
9 29 “49-Position Translator Switch” report to the Bureau of Ships, 1948
9 30 Addresses on a Computer Drum, undated
9 31 Proposed Binary Accumulator, 1947
9 32 Parallel Computer - National Bureau of Standards (30 and 36 digit), 1948
9 33 Magnetic Storage Drum prints
9 34 Prints miscellaneous
9 35 Wayne Conference on Automatic Computing Machinery (includes information on the Raytheon Digital Computer and the IBM Defense Calculator), 1951
9 36 Rutgers Conference - IBM Card Programmed Calculator, Arnold Cohen's notes, 1950
9 37 Magnetic Storage, Arnold Cohen's Publications, 1949-1951
9 38 Harvard University Computational Laboratory, Symposium on Large Scale Digital Calculating Machinery (includes descriptive material distributed by the Moore School at the 1947 EDVAC display and memorandum for H.J. Volk “Sequence Controlled Calculators for the Prudential”, 1947 - 1946)
9 39 Prudential Sequence Control Calculators, copies of 1946-1947 memoranda
9 40 Technical Memoranda (ditto masters), includes Arnold Cohen and William Keye “Selective Alteration of Digital Data in Magnetic Drum”, 1946-1952
9 41 Arnold Cohen's IRE Paper re Single Alteration, 1947
Box Folder
10 1 Magnetic Drum History (includes photographs), 1968
10 2 Memoranda re magnetic drum patent, 1958
10 3 The Nature of Patent Rights and the Protection of Inventions (talk given by John W. Mailley of Cushman, Darby & Cushman. ERA's patent counsels.)
10 4 Magnetic Drum Technology - background
10 5 Miscellany - Honeywell v. Sperry Rand
10 6 Patents general correspondence, 1953-1964
10 7 Patents
10 7a Patent Policy Plan
10 7b Report - Patent Survey - Product Recommendations
10 8 Technical Report announcements, 1950-1954
10 9 Magnetic Drum Patents
10 10-13 Technitrol v. Sperry Rand, 1958-1961
C. Research Reports - Arnold Cohen files
11 1-2 Bore Hole Camera (conical mirror), 1950-1951
11 3 Eclipse Pioneer - Bendix Aviation Corporation contract report, 1948
11 4 Electromagnetic Balance, 1949
11 5 Flight Instruments (pressure operated), 1953
11 6 Helical Scanner for Magnetic Factrol Records, 1952
11 7 High Frequency Loss Loops for Saturable Magnetic Cores, 1950
11 8 Magnetic Numerscope Printer, 1949
11 9 Microfilm Selector - general description, 1947
11 10 Microfilm Selector Equipment, 1949
11 11 Microfilm Selector - manufacturing manual
11 12 Microfilm Selector - contract report
11 13-14 Microfilm Rapid Selector Progress Reports, 1947
11 15 Ore Car Data Processing System, 1951
11 16 Self Recording Instruments, 1949
11 17 A Study leading to the design of a transistorized parallel digital computer, 1954
11 18 Taurus - Task 23 - Summary of objectives to equipment development, 1951
11 19 Toll vehicle classification equipment, 1953
11 20 Toridal Coil Winder, 1953
11 21 Transistor Group Progress Report, 1955
Box
12 Invention disclosures, 1950s and 1960s
12 Contract Administration - U.S. government contract file, 1960s
Box
13 Product files - UNIVAC II, III, 418, 422, 494 and 1100 series
Box
14 Product files - 1206, 1218, 1824, 1212, 1107, 1108, 1110, 1195, 1219, 1224, 1818, 1616, 1830, 1840, 9000, 9500, 1107
III. Legal records
Scope and Content
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the questions of who developed the first electronic digital computer and the first magnetic storage drum were the focus of a number of Patent infringement lawsuits. Honeywell v. Sperry, Technitrol v. Sperry Rand, and Sperry Rand v. Control Data revolved around these questions. These files include copies of briefs, trial transcripts, and exhibits.
Box
15 Honeywell v. Sperry lawsuit
Box
16-18 Sperry Rand v. Control Data
Box
19-20 Technitrol v. Sperry Rand
IV. Oral History, 1978
Scope and Content
Contains transcripts of oral history interviews which were done for Sperry Rand's unpublished 1978 history book. Of particular interest are the interviews with Arnold Cohen and Sidney Rubens.
Box Folder
21 1 Art Kotz
Box Folder
21 1 Sidney Rubens
Box Folder
21 1 Arnold Cohen
Box Folder
21 1 Irv Wilking
Box Folder
21 1 Dick Mullins
Box Folder
21 1 Ray Miller
Box Folder
21 1 Bern Eklund
Box Folder
21 1 Lou Cramer
Box Folder
21 1 Roger Moerke
Box Folder
21 1 Earl La Bahn
Box Folder
21 1 Jerry Behan
Box Folder
21 1 Bill Jeffries
Box Folder
21 1 Don Backstrom
Box Folder
21 1 Jack Ross
Box Folder
21 1 Rodger Gadner
Box Folder
21 1 Genevieve Sederstrom
Box Folder
21 1 Earl Case and Jack Kadrie
Box Folder
21 1 Lorraine Kellner
Box Folder
21 1 Wally Miner
Box Folder
21 1 Keith Davidson
Box Folder
21 1 Vince Albrecht
Box Folder
21 1 George Johnson
Box Folder
21 2 Oral Histories continued - edited versions